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The state was just 89 people shy of holding onto its previous 27-seat delegation in the House of Representatives

New York was one apartment building short of not losing a congressional seat, according to recent census data released in April. The state was just 89 residents shy of holding onto its previous 27-seat delegation in the House of Representatives, but was ultimately beat out by Minnesota for the 435th seat. The loss of a congressional seat may signal other consequential losses, including a reduction in federal funding each year.

New York State assemblymember Yuh-Line Niou issued a statement on Twitter to both share her disappointment regarding the lost congressional seat, and to take a swipe at Governor Cuomo for…

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The end of the year—and the beginning of a new one—often presents us with an opportunity for some sober reflection. And after a year like 2020, there is perhaps no better time for such a mental exercise. With the most recent coronavirus relief package just passed and signed by Trump, it’s worthwhile to consider honestly how Congress and the government responded to the pandemic in terms of addressing this year’s economic strife.

And the honest answer is that they have done a rather decent job.

This potentially flies in the face of popular consensus. Much of the outrage on Twitter…

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In the Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce examines the nature of our moral sense through a genealogical account and seeks to determine if we are justified in holding moral beliefs after learning more about their etiology. Joyce’s so-called evolutionary “debunking” of morality occurs in the last chapter of his book, and it concludes that we, given our evolutionary and genealogical history, ought to “cultivate agnosticism regarding all positive beliefs” involving moral concepts until evidence is found in favor of or against the belief.

It is my goal here to argue that, although we may yet have reason to cultivate agnosticism—or…

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A Q&A With Two Scholars on the Topic

Below are slected questions from two different interviews about the same topic. That topic: the tearing down of statues and monuments. The first set of questions is from Dr. Rachael Zeleny from the University of Baltimore, whose research considers the way in which we interact with public art. The second set includes answers from Manhattan Institute visiting fellow and New York University law professor Richard Epstein.

These interviews have been shortened for clarity.

Rachael Zeleny is a professor at the University of Baltimore. She has a cross-disciplinary curriculum and teaches courses in art, theater, rhetoric, and literature. Her research focuses…

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Sartre’s notions of freedom and choice are worthwhile to consider during these times of lockdown and loss of social connection. All quotes taken from Existentialism is a Humanism, 1946, Being and Nothingness, 1943.

The aristocratic rebel might have been founded by Rousseau and Byron, but it was lived most fully through the figure of Jean-Paul Sartre. Born in 1905, Sartre was the son of an educated naval officer. His father died soon after he was born and Sartre grew up in Meudon with his mother and grandfather. He studied in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure, where he earned his…

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The 18th century natural philosopher Emilie du Châtelet provides a unique account. All quotes Discourse on Happiness (1748), and Being and Nothingness (1993).

Happiness is one of the greatest existential dilemmas to wash ashore. Since before the time of the Sages, people have been concerned with formulating what it is it live in a state with minimal suffering; but even this, for many, eventually could not constitute happiness in any proper understanding of it.

Philosophers have claimed in various forms that happiness is the result of the “good life.” Edwards claimed it was desiring what you currently act out. Aristotle…

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Kant showed that synthetic a priori judgements were possible. Here’s how. Quotes taken from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics.

The 18th century saw the rise of the British Empiricists, and philosophy was dominated by the figures of Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. All had a theory of knowledge that presumed knowledge itself to be only what is conversant in the mind: Locke had a type of inconsistency that allowed for three types of knowledge despite this, Berkeley abolished all matter, stating there were only minds, and Hume maintained all theoretic consistency which led him to solipsism. All fell to subjectivism.


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Aristotle’s teleological theory is often used in discussions about human nature. It is worth noticing it supports Aristotle’s sexist conclusions. Quotes taken from Aristotle’s Politics, Physics, De Anima, and On Generation of Animals.

Aristotle’s notions of women were certainly conventional for his time period. Ancient Greece accepted the subjugation of women as natural and in accordance with their inferior state. Aristotle, too, held this view and indeed provided arguments for holding it; both metaphysical and biological in nature.

When reading these arguments, one may be enticed to suggest there lay an inconsistency between his view on women and his notion…

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All quotes from Essay Concerning Human Understanding, B.II Ch.XXI

The notion of personal will — and its freedom — is one that has caused endless discussion throughout the annals of Western philosophy. However, for John Locke, this question is absurd. In Book II, Chapter XXI of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke presents a theory of freedom. The text itself went through five revisions, with significant changes appearing in edition two and the posthumous edition five. Yet, his conception of freedom is a novel one. Locke’s understanding of action, the will, and liberty, as we will see, results in his…

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Why should you be a Marxist? Marx can’t give you a reason.

The poetics of the Communist Manifesto were published during the twilight of King Louis Phillipe’s reign in France. In 1848, when revolution struck within the same month of the Manifesto’s publication, many might have reasonably believed that the so-called spectre of Communism was truly manifesting itself throughout the European continent. Of course, the ascension of Louis Napoleon rid any possible proletariat seizure of the French government, as he claimed the presidency for life and the Emperorship by 1852.

However, for the Marxian worldview, nothing changed. The historical analysis…

Anthony DiMauro

Anthony DiMauro is a freelance writer in New York City. J.D. Candidate. NYU philosophy alum. You can follow him on Twitter @AnthonyMDiMauro

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